Main Article Content
Agriculture is a sector with a long tradition and an important contribution to economic growth in Vietnam, ensuring food security and generating revenue for the country's exports. However, agricultural activities in Vietnam are significantly affected by climate change. In that context, climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is a strategy to creating agricultural solutions for securing climate change sustainable food security and adaptation. CSA offers the tools through which local and national stakeholders may establish agricultural practices that are appropriate to their local climate. The CSA intends to address three primary objectives: sustainably improving productivity and incomes in farming, adapting and strengthening climate change resilience, and lowering emissions of greenhouse gases. CSA has been initiated and applied in Vietnam since the 2000s, along with the birth of institutions and policies to support CSA. Various CSA practices have been identified, including the management of smart water and irrigation, adoption of enhanced crop varieties, agricultural forestry, crop intercropping, sustainable land management, agricultural waste processing, for example, biogas technologies, integration in livestock production, and improved agro-climate information services. However, so far, CSA practices are remaining implemented at a moderate level in the country. The lack of synergy between CSA's long-term objectives and direct advantages of agricultural expansion is important to the facilitation and scale-out of CSA in Vietnam. This article discusses the evolution and achievements of the CSA in Vietnam. It will also introduce some models of CSA practice and the challenges at the household and local level in implementing CSA. At the same time, some solutions are proposed to promote the implementation of CSA in the coming time in Vietnam in the context of climate change.
Keywords: climate-smart agriculture, food security, climate change, extension, resilience, adaptation, emission