Assessment of Etiological Factors Associated to Anterior Class Iv Restorations - A University Based Study

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Ranjith Raj VPRB, Dr Adimulapu Hima Sandeep



Physical appearance especially concerning the esthetics of the facial form shape and appearance has been of utmost importance since the development of civilizations. Many studies are present researching the different types of composites,techniques and other modalities as such for anterior teeth teeth restorations but the insights regarding the etiology and the studies regarding it are very few in number. This study aims to assess the factors and the etiology of class 4 restorations in patients visiting a private dental institution.


 Dental patients who visited our institution from June  2019 - july  2021 , 200 patients who had undergone class 4 restorations were included in the study and simple random sampling method was followed to prevent bias . Each patient's dental records, treatment reports and photographs were reviewed thoroughly.The data analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences for Windows, version 26.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) and results were obtained. P-value (< 0.05) was considered statistically significant.


The study population had an equal male and female gender ratio (50%). Majority of the study population were affected with trauma 34.50% followed by caries 33.50%. Majority of the female population (21.50%) had caries as their main etiological factor and the majority of the male population had trauma (20.50%).Trauma was the main etiological factor in 18-22 age group (18.50%) , followed by caries which was the main etiological factor in 33-37 age group.


Caries and trauma were the most common etiological factors for patients to undergo class 4 restorations.Caries were mostly associated with Females & older age groups and Trauma was mostly associated with Males & younger age groups.

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