Review on the Medicinal Applications of Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles

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P. Leema Rose, S. Maneemegalai, M. Kulandhaivel, P. Srinivasan, J. Albino Wins, Zoyeb Mohamed Zia


Nanotechnology has advanced dramatically over the last several decades. Zinc oxide (ZnO), which can have a wide range of nanostructures, has unique semiconducting, optical, and piezoelectric properties and has thus been studied for a wide range of applications. Low toxicity and biodegradability are important characteristics of ZnO nanomaterials. Zn2+ is an essential trace element for adults (a daily dose of 10 mg is recommended) and is involved in many aspects of metabolism. ZnO's surface is chemically rich in -OH groups, which can be easily functionalized by various surface decorating molecules. We summarised the current state of the use of ZnO nanomaterials for biomedical applications such as biomedical imaging (including fluorescence, magnetic resonance, positron emission tomography, and dual-modality imaging), drug delivery, gene delivery, and biosensing of a wide range of molecules of interest in this review article. Over the next decade, research in biomedical applications of ZnO nanomaterials will flourish, and much effort will be required to develop biocompatible/biodegradable ZnO nanoplatforms for potential clinical translation.

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